Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

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Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف y12 في الأحد أكتوبر 19, 2008 9:27 pm

The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of the efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. In the context of 1848 liberal revolutions that swept through Europe an unsuccessful war was declared on Austria. Giuseppe Garibaldi popular amongst southern Italians led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy,[13] while the northern Italian monarchy of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, conte di Cavour, had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state under its rule. The kingdom successfully challenged Austrian Empire in the Second Italian War of Independence with the help of Napoleon III, liberating the Lombardy-Venetia. In 1866 Victor Emmanuel II aligned the kingdom to Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War waging the Third Italian War of Independence which allowed Italy to annex Venice. In 1870, as France during the disastrous Franco-Prussian War abandoned its positions in Rome, Italy rushed to fill the power gap by taking over the Papal State from French sovereignty. Italian unification finally was achieved, and shortly afterwards Italy's capital was moved to Rome.

As Northern Italy was industrialized and modernized, the south became overcrowded, forcing millions of people to emigrate for a better life abroad. The Sardinian Statuto Albertino of 1848, extended to the whole Kingdom of Italy in 1861, provided for basic freedoms, but the electoral laws excluded the non-propertied and uneducated classes from voting. In 1913 male universal suffrage was allowed. The Socialist Party became the main political party, outclassing the traditional liberal and conservative organisations. Starting from the last two decades of the nineteenth century, Italy developed into a colonial power by forcing Somalia, Eritrea and later Libya and Dodecanese under its rule.[14] During World War I Italy stayed at first neutral, but in 1915, signed the London Pact entering Entente, promised Trento, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia and parts of Ottoman Empire. During the war, 600,000 Italians died and the economy collapsed. Under the Peace Treaty of Saint-Germain, Italy obtained just Bolzano-Bozen, Trento, Trieste and Istria in a victory defined as "mutilated" by public.

The turbulence that followed the devastations of World War I, inspired by the Russian Revolution, led to turmoil and anarchy. The liberal establishment, fearing a socialist revolution, started to endorse the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini. In October 1922 the fascists attempted a coup (the "Marcia su Roma", i.e. March on Rome); but the king ordered the army not to intervene, instead forming an alliance with Mussolini. Over the next few years, Mussolini banned all political parties and curtailed personal liberties thus forming a dictatorship. In 1935, Mussolini subjugated Ethiopia after a surprisingly lengthy campaign. This resulted in international alienation and the exodus of the country from the League of nations. A first pact with Nazi Germany was concluded in 1936, and a second in 1938. Italy strongly supported Franco in the Spanish civil war and Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia.

On 7 April 1939 Italy occupied Albania, a de facto protectorate for decades and entered World War II in 1940 taking part in the late stages of the Battle of France. Mussolini wanting a quick and swift victory which would emulate Hitler's blitzkrieg in Poland and France, invaded Greece in October 1940 via Albania but was forced to a humiliating defeat after a few months. At the same time Italy after initially conquering British Somalia, saw an allied counter-attack leading to the loss of all possessions in the Horn of Africa. Italy was also defeated by British forces in North Africa and was only saved by the urgently dispatched German Africa Corps led by Erwin Rommel. Italy was invaded by Allies in June 1943 leading to the collapse of the fascist regime and the arrest of Mussolini. In September 1943, Italy surrendered. Immediately Germany invaded its former ally with the country becoming a battlefield for the rest of the war. The country was liberated on 25 April 1945
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y12
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رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف mona.sh في السبت أكتوبر 25, 2008 6:34 pm

santa thanks
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mona.sh
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رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف roba13 في السبت نوفمبر 08, 2008 4:23 pm

thanks yazed................ pig
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roba13
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رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف y12 في الأحد نوفمبر 09, 2008 9:44 pm

you wellecom
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y12
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تاريخ التسجيل : 13/10/2008

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رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف roba13 في الإثنين نوفمبر 10, 2008 7:32 pm

بس لو انك تبسط المواضيع واللغة اشوي او تكتب الكلمات الصعبه تحت لاني مش فاهمي شو مكتوب
flower flower flower flower flower flower flower flower flower
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roba13
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رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف y12 في الإثنين نوفمبر 10, 2008 7:36 pm

مهو هاذ الهدف انك تقري وتطلع من القاموس الكلمات وتكري اكثر من مرة عشان تفهمي
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y12
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تاريخ التسجيل : 13/10/2008

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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل

رد: Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

مُساهمة من طرف roba13 في الإثنين نوفمبر 10, 2008 8:09 pm

ولو كثير هيك Razz Razz Razz Razz Razz Razz Razz Razz Razz
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roba13
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عدد الرسائل : 1566
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تاريخ التسجيل : 31/10/2008

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